Predatory Deception

The artifact employs deceptive, manipulative rhetoric or misinformation.

Predatory deception is the use of deceptive journalistic techniques to manipulate the audience, including but not limited to errors of omission, exaggeration, and invention.


The Predatory Deception flag is intended to identify cases in which a journalist or content creator intentionally engages in deception that has a clear personal upside. There are three requirements for this flag:

  • Deceptive. The journalist must have lied, obscured, altered, or belabored the truth.
  • Intentional. The journalist must have engaged in the deception intentionally.
  • Predatory. The deception must be potentially damaging to consumers or, if not, then potentially beneficial to the journalist.

If the action isn’t predatory AND deceptive, it’s not predatory deception.